In this statue, which dates from the years immediately following his death, Antinous is shown in a syncretic Dionysus-Osiris pose. On his head is a crown of leaves and ivy berries, and a diadem which at the top would originally have held a cobra (uraeus) or a lotus flower, but which the modern restorers have replaced with a sort of pine cone. The Dionysian attributes of the thyrsus and the mystical chest are also modern additions.2
Antinous himself is a figure shrouded in mystery and palace intrigue. We know from literary sources that he was a young man from Bithynia who had attracted the amorous attentions of the emperor Hadrian. Cassius Dio describes Antinous as a “παιδικὰ” (a “boy-toy”) of Hadrian, suggesting that in taking the lover, the emperor was trying to imitate models of traditional Greek pederasty.3 Antinous followed Hadrian on his tours of the provinces and died in Egypt. His death was the subject of controversy and the source of his lasting fame. There was a rumor that Antinous had been offered as a human sacrifice for the health of his lover and emperor. Cassius Dio gives us a succinct summary of the opposing stories of Antinous’s death:
Aurelius Victor elaborates further:
Indeed, perhaps the only thing we know for certain about Antinous is that after his death the emperor had him deified and countless statues of him set up all over the empire. Pausanias describes the honors offorded to Antinous in the town of Mantineia:
ἐνομίσθη δὲ καὶ Ἀντίνους σφίσιν εἶναι θεός: τῶν δὲ ἐν Μαντινείᾳ νεώτατός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ Ἀντίνου ναός. οὗτος ἐσπουδάσθη περισσῶς δή τι ὑπὸ βασιλέως Ἀδριανοῦ: ἐγὼ δὲ μετ᾽ ἀνθρώπων μὲν ἔτι αὐτὸν ὄντα οὐκ εἶδον, ἐν δὲ ἀγάλμασιν εἶδον καὶ ἐν γραφαῖς. ἔχει μὲν δὴ γέρα καὶ ἑτέρωθι, καὶ ἐπὶ τῷ Νείλῳ πόλις Αἰγυπτίων ἐστὶν ἐπώνυμος Ἀντίνου…ὁ βασιλεὺς κατεστήσατο αὐτῷ καὶ ἐν Μαντινείᾳ τιμάς, καὶ τελετή τε κατὰ ἔτος ἕκαστον καὶ ἀγών ἐστιν αὐτῷ διὰ ἔτους πέμπτου. οἶκος δέ ἐστιν ἐν τῷ γυμνασίῳ Μαντινεῦσιν ἀγάλματα ἔχων Ἀντίνου καὶ ἐς τἄλλα θέας ἄξιος λίθων ἕνεκα οἷς κεκόσμηται καὶ ἀπιδόντι ἐς τὰς γραφάς: αἱ δὲ Ἀντίνου εἰσὶν αἱ πολλαί6
Antinous’ lasting legacy lies in the statues of him like the ones Pausanias saw in Mantineia, many of which have been recovered in excavations all around the Mediterranean, including many from several of Hadrian’s villas around Rome. The statue above in the Vatican, which was excavated in Hadrian’s villa in Praeneste, is one of these, but the Vatican collection also includes several other sculptures of Antinous from the areas around Rome.
What, however, makes this sculpture a statue of Antinous? The most characteristic feature of Antinous is his long, curly hair. Antinous has thick, beautifully unkempt locks which cascade down the back of his neck in layers. Yet just because a statue has curly hair doesn’t mean that it is Antinous; it could be, for example, a generic beautiful youth. Modern scholars have attempted analyze the exact way in which the locks flow down a sculpture’s neck in order to more accurately identify Antinous, but this so-called “lock scheme” for classification has run into problems.7 The second identifying feature of an Antinous is his distantly melancholy downward looking expression, what Caroline Vout calls the “fleshy pout and down-turned head” that gives Antinous an “overall sensuous but sulky air.”8
Our sculpture in the Vatican clearly has Antinous’s hot and rugged curls and his sexy sulk. Throw in its Praeneste provenance, and the identification would seem to be assured. Yet again, nothing about Antinous’s characteristics are unique to Antinous. He has no attributes, like Herakle’s’ lion skin or Dionysus’s garlands and thyrsis. Antinous’s image is nothing more than a particular version of the generic pretty-boy genre. Especially when Antinous is syncretized with another god or gods, as he is with Dionysus and Osiris here, it becomes increasingly difficult to make a certain identification. The only sure Antinouses are those found with an inscription of his name (as for example the obelisk dedicated to Antinous now on display in the Villa Borghese park).
But that’s exactly the point. Nearly all ancient portraits are syncretizations and combinations of some sort. Sculptures of Augustus are clearly modeled after Alexander the Great. Alexander’s statues are themselves modeled after Apollo, who in turn has his roots in the Egyptianizing kouros sculptures of early Greece. Ancient portraits aren’t so much attempting to render a faithful likeness of their subject, but rather to make statements by drawing on a shared sculptural vocabulary. By using subtle combinations of features from earlier sculpture types, portraits can draw parallels equating their subjects with gods and great men of the past. Augustus is Alexander. Alexander is Apollo. If the viewer of our Antinous sculpture were confused at first by the lack of attributes into thinking it was a sculpture of Dionysus, or of Osiris, or any number of other pretty-boy gods, Hadrian would be pleased.
- The statue is in the Round Hall of the Pio Clementino Museum. The image source is here.
- The link is here
- 69.11.2. The full Greek text is here.
- 69.11.2-3, “He died in Egypt, whether he fell in the Nile, as Hadrian writes, or whether he was sacrificed, as the truth holds.” The full Greek text is here.
- 14.8-9, “Since Hadrian desired to fulfill fate, when the wise men had demanded a volunteer for sacrifice, they say that although everyone was holding him back, he threw Antinous under the bus, and that for this reason cults were dedicated to him.” The full Latin text is here
- 8.9.7, “Antinous was also named a god among them: indeed the temple of Antinous, who was very much favoured by the emperor Hadrian, is the newest of the temples in Mantineia. I never saw him when he was still among men, but I saw him in statues and paintings. He also holds honors in other places, and there is an Egyptian city on the Nile name Antinous…The emperor established a cult to him in Mantineia, and an annual sacrifice, and there are games every fifth year. Moreover there is a house in the gymnasium of the Mantineians which holds statues of Antinous which are remarkable for the stone with which they were sculpted and also for the paintings, among which are many of Antinous. The full Greek text is here
- For a good summary of the lock scheme methodology and a vigorous rebuttal of it, see Caroline Vout 2005, “Antinous, Archaeology and History,” The Journal of Roman Studies, vo. 95, pp. 80-96.
- ibid. pg. 85.